The great calligrapher, Muhammad ibn Muqla, a vizier at the court of three Abbasid caliphs, was charged with the task of standardising and refining the myriad cursive scripts.
During tulip season the grand vizier provided the sultan with nightly entertainment in the Ciragan gardens, lit by thousands of mirrored lanterns as well as candles mounted on the backs of ambling tortoises.
He came to Egypt in 1168 as an assistant to his uncle, who was a general and then became the vizier of the last Fatimid caliph.
Overthrown temporarily, and in an evil hour his prerogative endangered, his domination was re-established more indisputably now than ever in the grand viziership of his son.
Coordination between the different viziers and communication between the sovereign and the vizierates required a new official.
In 803 Harun al-Rashid murdered his vizier, Ja'far the Barmecide, and ordered the destruction of this powerful vizierial family.
During his vizierate the Ottoman Empire regained some of its former prestige and vitality.
Ýbrâhîm Pasha's viziership coincided with the Ottoman Tulip Era, a time known both for its aesthetic achievements and its decadence.
The viziership of the eunuch Suleyman Pasha was evidently based upon his extraordinary service in Ottoman Egypt, his success in expelling the Portuguese from the Red Sea and Arabia, and in firmly establishing Ottoman rule in Yemen and Aden during his long governorship of Egypt.
One family's control over the viziership came to be more stable than the transfer of kingship.