At common law an unincorporated association is not a legal person and therefore not subject to criminal liability.
The US purchased them in 1917 as part of a strategic passage to the Panama Canal and they are an unincorporated territory of the US, with a republican-style democracy.
The exclusion of unincorporated businesses from R&D support will have a damaging impact on the Scottish economy.
In the Anglo-American legal tradition, many things and institutions have rights - individuals have rights, corporations have rights, unincorporated associations have rights, and states have rights.
The grand jury also explored the possibility of charges against the archdiocese, but said the organization could not be prosecuted because it is an unincorporated association rather than a corporation.
That aside, the nub of the issue must be why the Chancellor insists on differentiating his treatment between the incorporated limited companies and the unincorporated , self-employed, sole-traders and partnerships.
Following the closure of the US naval base, its administration passed from the navy to the US Department of the Interior in 1951, as an unincorporated territory.
Unlike several other states, Pennsylvania has no provisions for unincorporated territory.
But Downie nevertheless bemoans the lack of a ‘comprehensive big idea for small business growth’ and stressed that more effort is needed to develop policies which do not exclude unincorporated businesses.
At present, Wallis is still part and parcel of the overseas territory of Wallis-and-Futuna, a French variant of American Samoa, since 1900 an unincorporated territory of the USA and also to be found in Western Polynesia.