Also, the presence of stratospheric ozone sandwiched between the satellite and the troposphere makes seeing tropospheric ozone very difficult.
The stratosphere extends above the troposphere to about 150,000 feet and is the region where the ozone layer is formed.
The stratosphere is the atmospheric layer between the troposphere and the mesosphere and extends from about 12 km altitude to about 50 km.
The other two climate records, so-called ‘upper air’ records, measure temperatures in Earth's troposphere and stratosphere.
Because of the cloud spreading at the top, the height of the troposphere in the area can also be calculated.
More significant is the delay caused by the troposphere, in particular tropospheric water vapour, which is non-dispersive and must be estimated using models of pressure, temperature, and humidity variation with altitude.
The most egregious example is when the temperature sensor becomes coated with ice in a rain cloud, in which case upper tropospheric temperatures can be as much as 20 C too warm.
The authors demonstrate that the presence of stronger westerly jets in the stratosphere causes tropospheric weather systems to track further toward the pole.
Further, distance-dependent or spatially correlated errors due to ionospheric, tropospheric or satellite orbit effects can be more accurately modelled in a network approach.
So do all climate changes cause opposing trends in stratospheric and tropospheric temperatures?