Although tensions existed between the army and the group, the president defused them by playing the politics of tribalism and regionalism, often targeting northerners as the source of the nation's problems.
The problem isn't having so many religions or countries, or denominations; the problem is being afraid of and not being able to embrace our differences, and when our differences are played out in tribalism .
It is therefore not without significance that since the 1970s African social scientists have dispensed with the concept of tribalism and have displayed great hostility to its continued use by Westerners.
Our conversation returns, as they are wont to do in these circumstances, to tribalism - county rivalries.
The effort to invent a modern politics for Africa privileged ethnic representation-a revived, or sometimes even invented, tribalism .
By '90, adherents numbered in the thousands, and a distrustful government began to clamp down, leveling accusations of tribalism against the movement and then banishing it.
Mwakikagile does admit that Africa has had some successes, and that even Nigeria, which fought a civil war because of tribalism , has been able to overcome many of those ethnic issues.
Kenya continues to suffer from tribalism and corruption, as well as high population growth, unemployment, political instability, and the AIDS epidemic.
The Bantustans represented an imposed tribalism , with indigenous Africans forcibly displaced onto reservations carved out of the country's poorest land.
According to the magazine, Africa's failures could be explained by a combination of factors, including harsh natural conditions, colonialism, tribalism , dictatorship and corruption.