top-down - транскрипция, произношение и перевод онлайн

Транскрипция и произношение слова "top-down" в британском и американском вариантах. Подробный перевод и примеры.

top-down / нисходящий
[ˌtɒpˈdaʊn]
[ˈtɑːp-]
Перевод
имя прилагательное
нисходящий
descending, down, degressive, downcast, top-down
Определения
имя прилагательное
denoting a system of government or management in which actions and policies are initiated at the highest level; hierarchical.
Ties reinforced at the Grove manifest themselves in global trade meetings, party politics, campaign financing, and top-down democracy.
proceeding from the general to the particular.
a top-down approach to research
Примеры
It explicitly has avoided creating a top-down categorization scheme.
One of the most important lessons in online community management is that top-down management is seldom particularly successful in forcing people to act in a certain way.
So from the top-down , the high level CIs are based on management and buildability issues (and also if there's any areas of special technical risk, but I'm trying to keep this as simple as possible).
On the other hand, whereas the Cathedral thrives on monolithic management, the Linux project has neither top-down planning nor a central body vested with binding and enforcing authorities.
Although this focal production network is far from being a simple top-down hierarchy, it is characterized by strong ties and uneven power relations.
DFO is, by nature of the Act, a large bureaucracy that has as its sole objective the implementation of a top-down management system.
Teaches fundamentals of programming including principles of structured code and top-down design.
This is a very top-down process, and is typical of the kind of information architecture that was practiced a few years ago, when we were more likely to be designing brand new sites.
Accountability, at least, leaves the traditional top-down system intact.
Ties reinforced at the Grove manifest themselves in global trade meetings, party politics, campaign financing, and top-down democracy.