For the data analysis, subspecies and varieties were treated as full species.
At the time, it was thought that all the subspecies were separated geographically, at least on the breeding grounds if not entirely in winter.
You can have subspecies, but humans are clearly not a subspecies of chimp.
Should the subspecies be considered endangered, when the species itself is not?
Japan's Iriomote cat was recently demoted from a distinct species to an island subspecies of leopard cat.
Genetic data based on mitochondrial DNA generally support current subspecific classifications based on phenotypic traits.
Molecular genetic studies of Song Sparrows across North America have also had difficulty finding concordance between genetic variation and subspecific designations based on phenotype.
Our original tree included a handful of subspecific taxa as well, but these have been excluded for the present analyses.
Because tracing migration and dispersal is a key application of subspecies, we tested applicability of the traditional subspecific classification on a set of specimens collected on the species' wintering grounds.
Mammalian systematists base specific and subspecific designations, reflecting probable phylogenetic relationships, on various morphological characters, few of which are dental.