The shape of the zooid domain in the majority of Dictyonema colonies is highly elliptical, with the long axis of the ellipse perpendicular to the proximodistal axis of the stipe .
This type of pollinarium lacks a stipe , and the pollinia are directly connected to a broad, soft, arcuate viscidium, which readily dehydrates and collapses after pollinarium removal.
In the picture above, you can see the flat photosynthetic structures, the lamina, or blades, branching from the stipe , or stalk.
The stipe is a cellular tissue derived from the column, and should not be confused with caudicles.
The petiole or stipe is the stalk at the base of the frond, before the first pinna ‘branches’ from the rachis.
Hyphal fusion is a synapomorphy of the higher fungi, but it is also reported to occur in the stipes of laminaralean brown algae (= kelp).
The presence of ‘hyphal fusion’ and obliquely oriented septa in the stipes of modern kelp points to the possibility of convergence, an issue that has also figured in the assessment of Prototaxites.
At the base of the kelp stipes you might find little clusters of dark sea-grapes, or a clutch of white, lozenge-shaped egg sacs.