Even with these changes, we still have concerns that the position and extent of the stapes is inconsistent between the two views of Ichthyostega.
This in turn moves the ‘anvil’ which is attached to the stapes .
The remainder underwent Type III tympanoplasty with the tympanic membrane placed directly over the stapes suprastructure.
Remnants of the pectoral girdle are present, perhaps due to the presence of an operculum-opercularis-like connection to the stapes .
They suggested that vibrations pass from the substrate to the jaw, which are juxtaposed, and then pass via the jaw articulation to the incus and stapes .
The left stapes is preserved, although not in life position.
Mammals hear sounds after they are transmitted from the outside world to their inner ears by a chain of three bones, the malleus, incus, and stapes .
Mr Bell removed the stapes , and attached to the end of the incus a style of hay about an inch in length.
It has commonly been inferred that the stapes (or ‘stirrup’), a bone in the cheek region of early tetrapods, was important for transmitting airborne vibrations to the inner ear.
The air pressure on either side of the eardrum is normally kept equal for proper functioning of the middle ear structures, namely the malleus, incus and stapes bones.