A parental fern grows, protects, and ultimately ejects its spores from a stalked structure: the sporangium .
However, closer evaluation of sporangial shape shows clearly that there is more variation within the genus than was previously suspected.
The cone axis is not visible, but the sporangial clusters appear to be arranged spirally.
The genera are characterized by the sporangiophore and sporangial features and their relationship to and appearance of the rhizoid structures.
The fungus can be identified microscopically by the production of its reproductive structures: the sporangiophores and sporangia .
In each case, fragments of lamina were collected with mature but closed sporangia .
However, sporangia are not always available for fossil ferns; and when present, determining sporangial type is often difficult.
Figure 2 illustrates asexual sporangial structures seen with several of the common Mucoraceae.
Thousands of sporangia were also collected on a moss covered decaying conifer log on a ground site at night with the use of a flashlight.
None of these sporophyte plants produced fertile sporophylls bearing sporangia .