Just as a scientist reads a seismograph to measure movements in the ground, the character of a government can be judged by the way it treats the most disadvantaged layers of society.
The observatory contained a seismograph to record mining tremors, an evaporation pan and a device to record lightening strikes which are particularly virulent on the Witwatersrand.
A seismograph at Ferris High School showed the trembling lasted for more than 30 seconds with two distinct spikes in intensity.
Tremors had been recorded in 1908 on a seismograph 4,000 kilometers west of St. Petersburg.
Eventually the parties agreed on a strict monitoring plan relying on seismographs and strain gauges to assess the effect on the structure as crews installed the caissons.
The most powerful method - seismology - is only possible for planets with seismographic stations, which have so far only been placed on the Earth and Moon.
Many amateurs acquire skills as lapidiaries, cutting, polishing and investigating specimens of all kinds, as photographers of landscape and geological phenomena, and even as builders of simple seismographic stations.
A series of digital seismographs installed around the volcano provide a continuous stream of data to the observatory.
Richter, who worked in southern California, using data from seismographs - which measure earth movement - devised a method to calculate where an earthquake began, or its epicenter, and its magnitude.
What comes out of the laboratory and what is measured in the real world by surface seismographs leaves a gap.