The Indonesian archipelago sits on the Pacific Rim of Fire, noted for its volcanic and seismic activity.
Thus, recognition and mapping of the Hardangerfjord Shear Zone in the North Sea requires deep seismic data.
By the 1980s, many other countries were funding the collection of deep seismic reflection data for academic research.
The best way to reduce the risk to marine life posed by seismic testing is to avoid conducting such surveys in rich environments, the biologist concluded.
Through measuring seismic activity, these scientists expect to predict an approaching eruption months in advance.
Before the wells were dug, surveys and seismic testing had to be undertaken using sonar equipment, to find the best site for digging.
Intermediate and long-term predictions on timescales of between 1 and 100 years are generally based on past records of seismic activity.
Tedesco said the researchers' major concern is possible seismic activity under Lake Kivu.
In 1994, Tolstoy and her team deployed equipment on the ocean floor to record both seismic activity and tides.
The petroleum industry in particular invested heavily in these advances, being largely concerned with seismic surveying.