The quaternary nitrogen atom in lycobetaine plays an important role in the formation of hydrogen bonds between the compound and the oligonucleotide.
Because this enzyme shows no activity in its monomeric form, correct quaternary structure is essential for the formation of active enzyme.
Chatburn and coworkers compared the effectiveness of two concentrations of acetic acid, quaternary ammonium compound, and household detergent against a mixture of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas cepacia.
Phenols and phenolics, quaternary ammonium compounds, 1: 500 bleach - water solutions, and iodine and iodophors are used in low-level disinfection.
Studies of multidrug-resistant proteins have demonstrated two types of residues involved in binding to quaternary ammonium compounds.
The inherent positive charge of the quaternary nitrogen and hydrophobic retinoid side chains in A2E suggest that it may behave as a surfactant.
What remains to be determined is how the reaction mechanism for this enzyme might differ from those PBGS that show both an absolute requirement for metal ions and an octameric quaternary structure.
Glycinebetaine (N, N, N-trimethylglycine; hereafter betaine) is a quaternary ammonium compound that occurs naturally in a wide variety of plants, animals and microorganisms.
The fitting procedure shows that only the quaternary model built using the as a template, and modified to accommodate only one zinc ion in the catalytic site (Model B), agrees with the experimental data.
Their activity may be enhanced by using membrane-disrupting surfactants such as quaternary ammonium compounds.