the name of all the Macedonian rulers of Egypt, a dynasty founded by Ptolemy, a close friend and general of Alexander the Great, who took charge of Egypt after the latter's death and declared himself king (Ptolemy I) in 304 bc . The dynasty ended with the death of Cleopatra in 30 bc.
Greek astronomer and geographer of the 2nd century ad . His teachings had enormous influence on medieval thought, the geocentric view of the cosmos being adopted as Christian doctrine until the late Renaissance. His Geography was also a standard work for centuries, despite its inaccuracies.