These ‘resistance’ characters include such obvious traits as the quills on a porcupine or the puffing of a puffer fish.
The quills are so lightly fixed to the porcupine 's body that they are easily detached and left imbedded in the attacker.
Like elephants, hippos and bushpigs, porcupines are nocturnal crop raiders.
They also sometimes roost in the burrows of other mammals such as hedgehogs, porcupines , and aardvarks.
Eight other species, including pacas, pacaranas, spiny rats and porcupines , also steal Brazil nuts stored by agoutis.
They have to contend with elephants, hippos, bushpigs, porcupines , vervet monkeys, baboons and birds which are after their crops.
As is the case with North American porcupines , the quills are loosely attached but can't be thrown or otherwise projected.
Whole lions at £5,000 a head, antelopes, porcupines , goats, cane rats and large, live snails - all from West Africa - were also candidates for the dinner table.
The rodent also seems to be an ancestor of the hystricognaths, a group of rodents that is spread across the globe and includes porcupines , African mole rats, guinea pigs, and chinchillas.
Burrows which have been abandoned may be used for shelter by bats, ground squirrels, hares, cats, civets, hyenas, jackals, porcupines , monitor lizards, owls and warthogs.