The mediastinal pleura is then incised over the length of the esophagus, avoiding injury to any neural or major vascular structures.
Manifestations of disease of the lung and of the pleura have become less evident and less characteristic on plain films as exposures have decreased.
Encysted effusion may be confused with a mass lesion of the pleura , mediastinum, chest wall and lungs.
Explanations for the cytokeratin immunoreactivity include locally entrapped mediastinal pleura or pulmonary epithelium.
The mass infiltrated the overlying pleura and adjacent lungs.
It may cause interstitial lung disease by diffusely involving the pleura , interlobular septa, and pulmonary bronchovascular bundles.
The tumor frequently extended to the adjacent lung parenchyma, bronchi, visceral pleura , and mediastinal soft tissues.
The rupture involved all layers of the aortic wall, but the mediastinal pleura remained intact.
Metastases were present in the vertebral bodies, spleen, peritoneum, pleura , adrenal glands, visceral and parietal pericardium, and multiple lymph nodes.
The thoracic pleura of Archizelmiridae, visible in some of the amber fossils, provide additional clues about relationships.