Throughout the 19th century, they used piecework wages and inside subcontracting to control labor costs.
In a bid to encourage dentists to make immediate improvements, the new NHS paid them piecework fees.
Male trade unionists, by contrast, considered piecework anathema, for it was associated in their minds with unskilled labour, exploitative working conditions, and with a loss of control and dignity.
To support their families, women would bring in piecework from garment factories, make paper flowers to sell, and take in boarders.
Various factors were decisive here: more food for better performance, the widespread introduction of piecework wages, and the constant expansion of the plant-internal system of surveillance and punishment.
The division of labor and piecework system was a great deal more sophisticated and modern than has previously been thought.
Thus, Italian women supplemented the family income by taking in boarders and doing piecework alongside their daughters.
His parents thought he was crazy, he said, but he did it, while earning a living by doing copywriting piecework at night.
It is not uncommon for women to do piecework in their homes.
The new contract includes piecework payment that would mean workers were only paid for the number of beasts they slaughter and prepare.