Complementing the large compound eyes, locusts have three much smaller simple eyes or ocelli characterized by rapid signal transmission and high photic sensitivity but very poor spatial resolution.
The implications of this work on thought about evolution of photic behavior in fireflies are considered.
The relatively moderate brachiopod generic diversity is consistent with a moderately restrictive environment, including one below the photic zone.
Seasonal highs that pushed this euxinic layer into the photic zone would then lead to the greatly increased preservation and the TOC maxima.
To characterize this photic entrainment we examined frq expression in constant light, under which condition the mRNA and protein of this clock gene were strongly induced.
They are therefore true deep-brain photoreceptors that bypass the eyes as a pathway for photic information.
Macroalgae benefit from this relationship because fertile drift plants are retained in the photic zone where they continue to contribute to the gene pool.
Furthermore, extraretinal photoreceptors appear to be involved in the photic entrainment of the circadian clock.
Exhibiting uncharacteristic panache, John used this result to question Jacques Loeb's then popular theory of photic orientation in insects, which required paired eyes.
The authors skimmed their bacteria samples from the top, or photic layer, of the Mediterranean and Red Seas.