The success of burlesque in the late 1860s spawned several all-female white troupes performing standard minstrel routines in whiteface.
The minstrel was often paid to sing the praises of his master at the feast (as bad as the holiday slides!)
Producing affective switch points between two simultaneous registers of sympathy and ridicule, minstrel performances catalyze confrontations within social relations.
Looking in the mirror above the sink, he saw that his face was covered in a thin layer of sooty grime, like a black and white minstrel half way through putting on his make up.
‘Aunt Jemima of the Ocean Waves’ is a two-part interrogation of the black minstrel tradition embodied by the famous face of Aunt Jemima.
Later in his career, Douglass became a vocal opponent of minstrel humor, performed either by blacks or whites.
While having his meal, the stranger listened to the minstrel who was performing in the tavern.
The blues ‘sound’ of black minstrel life is audible here, in the paradoxical conjunction of Pullman car luxury with preparations for ignominious flight.
Touring black minstrel troupes flourished from the 1860s into the early years of the 20th century, providing an avenue by which black Americans could make a living as musicians.
Unlike the minstrel who sings freely, with his audience joining in, Spenser now has to deal with the expectations of his audience.