The tongue is suspended from the inside of the mandible above the hyoid bone and has muscles with a range of different orientations.
Centipedes were measured from the tip of the upper mandible to the posterior end of the last body segment.
the drake is all black except for an orange mark on the upper mandible
In addition, bill curvature was measured, taking the radius of the height of the upper mandible from the line traced from the base to the tip of the bill.
Breeding adults have a laterally flattened horn on the upper mandible .
The bill is a pinkish horn color and dark markings appear on the upper mandible .
In the mandible , there are four incisors, two canines, four premolars, and six molars.
The upper mandible of the bill is dark, and the legs are bright orange.
In mandibulate development, which is considered to be the ancestral form, the labial and maxillary appendages develop along similar if not identical paths producing articulated appendages.
The left mandibular fragment contains the roots of five erupted teeth, one erupted tooth crown, and one unerupted tooth.