Voters may look back on an incumbent 's performance in office, and cast a retrospective vote, or may compare what the candidates promise to do if elected to office, and vote prospectively.
Meanwhile, the legislative districts are designed to protect the incumbent .
Each year the incumbent officials perform ceremonies to remember the event.
They were media events, too, staged as much for the international press corps as to put pressure on the incumbent regimes.
Unless an incumbent government takes an active interest in improving the supply of public services, benign neglect will inevitably lead to a gradual deterioration.
It is a small union and it does not take many votes to defeat an incumbent official.
And while the official results are still coming in it appears incumbent governments across Europe have suffered at the hands of voters.
The incumbent officials no doubt feel the need to do something to boost their standing in the eyes of union members increasingly disillusioned with the erosion of conditions.
Notwithstanding widespread fears that the President to-be would be a clone of the present incumbent , the reality may be different.
He is a decent, honest man, though given to prolixity; no genius, but then certainly no worse than the present incumbent .