These have focused primarily on the structures of the channels and the energetics and dynamics of their contents, which consist of explicit water molecules and one or a few ions in the channel with no applied potential.
The energetics of proton transfer can be envisaged as a double-well potential where the proton is transferred from a donor to the acceptor.
They calculate energetics of a proton wire in the electrostatic environment of a channel.
This is clearly written, bringing in aspects of molecular-scale structure and function of components and energetics , set in the global context; it would serve as a good reference for students.
Therefore in this scenario, the ease at which an electron is removed is just a question of energetics .
These limitations have prevented us from providing a complete description, including energetics , of many biological events.
The leading theories of adhesion include the diffusion, electrostatic, surface energetics , and mechanical theories.
‘This will introduce a new business culture in the sphere of energetics and will speed up the process of investment in new and modern technologies,’ he said.
But the earthquake itself - the rupture process, the energetics and the regional stress balance - do not have an equation.
In this section, we describe the energetics involved in ion conduction.