The very eclecticism of eastern Etsako masks evokes an Igbo rather than an Edo model.
This order is the same as that found in all other Edo books on the subject.
In a personal communication, Arnold Rubin said that John Picton had attributed the mask to a northern Edo group, the Etsako, and had felt it resembled a mask photographed in Fugar by K.C. Murray.
Other smaller groups include the Fulani, Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Tiv, and Edo .
Both an interest in change as a cultural attitude and a focus on drama are more associated with Igbo than Edo in the literature.
The masquerades used in Ekperi today and in the recent past are forms borrowed from the visual culture of non-Edo or other northern Edo peoples, possibly making them more celebratory than sacred.
Addressing such matters as spirit doubles, personal aggressiveness, and hard work, they provide one of the most interesting ways by which to compare Delta peoples and their neighbors, including the Igbo and Edo .
Then, as now, one wonders in what ways the idiom of ‘the Delta’ pushed inland into Edo , northern Igbo, ancient Yoruba, and other ‘backwater’ regions.