For example, no child read pharbid, a word containing both a vowel r pattern and a consonant digraph not taught in tutoring, correctly at pre- or post-test.
The ligature digraph æ in ‘Ælfric’, ‘Cæsar’, ‘encyclopædia’ was originally used in Latin and adopted by Old English for the vowel in hat (hæt), often referred to as ASH.
Now the word is spelled ‘oedipus’ and the digraph is gone from American English orthography.
J does not normally feature in words of Old English origin, the digraph dg representing the sound medially and finally (cudgel, bridge), but some j words (ajar, jowl) may be of Germanic origin.
Children showed the most growth in categories involving closed syllable patterns (short vowel words with single consonants, digraphs , and blends) and long-vowel words (including magic e).
Another term, vowel digraphs , pertains to single vowel sounds represented by a pair of letters.
These three stages are identical with the principles for the development of digraphic systems.
The vowel digraphs ea and ou when followed by r may also have this value: earn, journey.
This cipher uses a keyed array of letters to make a digraphic cipher which is easy to use in the field.
For instance there may be digraphic graphemes for an individual phoneme such as ‘ph’ for ‘f’.