This type of leaf formation can be applied to monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.
In the leaf axils of most dicotyledonous trees well-developed buds are present.
The broad differences between halophytic monocotyledons and dicotyledons have been attributed to differences in water content and hence vacuolar volume.
Monocotyledons, such as maize, have a single cotyledon; dicotyledons , such as Arabidopsis, have two.
Within the leaf sheath a certain amount of development can be expected: in contrast to dicotyledonous plants, chloroplast division and development can occur in the absence of light in barley.
Besides this constitutive system, iron reductases have been described in dicotyledons and non-grass monocotyledons that reduce iron prior to uptake.
Thus, the phloem is neither ‘interxylary’ nor ‘included’ in dicotyledons with successive cambia.
In many dicotyledonous leaves, parenchyma or sclerenchyma cells of the vascular bundle sheath extend to the epidermis on both leaf sides, forming the so-called bundle sheath extensions.
Although GVG-regulated gene expression has been characterized extensively in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants such as tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice, it has not been tested in gymnosperms.
However, it should be kept in mind that young leaves of dicotyledons are more heterogenous as to cell age, than sections of a monocotyledon leaf.