In Piedmont and Naples the nobles were the principal beneficiaries from the alienations of tax revenues and demesne lands.
The amiable and insolvent owner of the 300-acre estate died after being ambushed near his demesne .
Bipartite estates were divided between a central demesne and an array of tenant plots.
On the manor the peasants worked the lord's demesne in return for protection, housing, and the use of plots of land to cultivate their own crops.
Next stop was Ballydoolin House, Carbury, which is a country demesne with a large Georgian country house and farmyard, built in 1821.
This affluent and woody oasis of tranquillity contrasts starkly with the roughly hewn stakes of the Catholic churchyard on the outer edges of the demesne .
The grotto will be restored to its original form and repairs will be carried out on the walls surrounding the demesne .
The demesne was cultivated directly under the supervision of the landlord or his agents, by the tenants, who owed labour-service as part of their rent.
The most common way of doing that was to increase compulsory labour services on the demesne land itself.
Under serfdom, peasants were not paid for their produce on demesne .