Other minor elements, such as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, bismuth, lead, magnesium, cerium , and calcium, can significantly alter both the graphite morphology and the microstructure of the matrix.
It's done with certain oxides of rare-earth elements such as cerium .
That porous layer, which contains stabilized zirconia and small amounts of the metals ruthenium and cerium , chemically and cleanly converts the fuel to hydrogen.
We see cerium , lanthanum, neodymium, and so forth, which indicate we are dealing with a rare-earth mineral, and that can mean big problems.
Mosander suggested the name of cerium for the element in honor of the asteroid Ceres that had been discovered in 1801.
His discovery ignited research into the physics of ‘heavy fermion ‘metals, which are a class of alloys that usually involve cerium or uranium.’
At the time, there was much excitement in the scientific community, and the next element to be discovered was named cerium , in the object's honor.
For example, an alloy of calcium and cerium is used in flints in cigarette and other types of lighters.
By replacing yttrium ions with europium, the researchers could make garnets with a violet hue, while ytterbium, zirconium, and cerium produced green garnets.
For most raw materials the combined use of cerium and magnesium followed by ferro-silicon as an inoculent is used to produce spheroidal graphite iron.