The minister identified plague, ebola, smallpox, anthrax, tularaemia and botulism as the main biological threats.
Wound botulism occurs when the bacteria infect a person's wound, and the toxin is produced inside of it.
In 1897, Van Ermengen related botulism to a bacterial toxin.
And he took the observation that with the food poisoning called botulism , one of the first symptoms was crossed eyes, or drooping of the lids.
An infant can acquire botulism by ingesting Clostridium botulinum spores, which are found in soil or honey products.
It was identified in the 1820s as the bacterium found in contaminated food that causes botulism .
Other infectious diseases that pose a threat include plague, tularemia, botulism and tuberculosis.
Exhausting or venting of pressure canners is necessary to prevent a risk of botulism in low-acid canned foods.
The bacteria which cause botulism cannot grow in acid conditions, so acid foods such as canned fruit and tomatoes need be heated only just enough to bring the centre of the can to boiling point.
Rarely, bacteria that produce botulism may also occur in spore form in contaminated soil.