I'm going to talk a lot about top-down versus bottom-up approaches to design.
In technology the bottom-up open-source software movement is putting new pressure on Microsoft and database giant Oracle.
Evidence from child language tends strongly to support category acquisition as a bottom-up process.
The bottom-up approach starts by detailing the metadata ‘facets’ used to describe content items.
You can see your top-down processes at work best in situations where the bottom-up processes are weak.
Furthermore, to ensure effective management, the Mi'Kmaq are working to establish a bottom-up approach to management decision making.
Formerly it had been a very bottom-up process, but there was no strategic framework.
It strikes me that you could argue that podcasting now represents a potential bottom-up disruption in the same market.
The advent of the Internet has made the bottom-up approach much more practical, too.
Can you automate information collection and then rely on bottom-up participation to make it useful?