The bey then called for French support, and three French columns, totalling some 35,000 men, were deployed.
Tunisia was declared a Protectorate and, by the middle of 1882, the entire region had been brought under French military authority with a French Resident installed alongside the traditional ruler, the bey .
For the next 1,300 years, a succession of Arab, Mameluke, and Ottoman caliphs, beys , and sultans ruled the country.
The various beys and pashas who ruled these states paid substantial sums annually to the Sultan.
The wife of Hâfiz Bey , my friend, lies near to death!
If he was awake and saw me he would spring up, bow low and kiss my hand, enquiring politely after Bulent Bey Efendi and myself.
Tunisia was ruled by the Husseini dynasty of beys from 1705 to 1957.