Several invertebrate groups that are conspicuous deep sea benthos are rare or absent from vent communities.
In this study, we examine how the size structure of benthos in lakes and predation by fishes were related over five years under seminatural gradients of fish biomass and predation pressure in three north-temperate experimental lakes.
A number of studies have examined patterns of body size distribution in benthos across or within systems, with little consensus toward general principles.
Even if an intertidal zone existed, sea ice disturbance, as well as the unstable, gravelly substrate, would make it uninhabitable by intertidal benthos , epifauna, or epiphytes.
The presence of other specialized benthos at the crinoid-bearing localities indicates that the ocean bottom locally was not fully anoxic.
The blue marlin occupies a high trophic level, feeding on pelegic and benthic organisms in the ecosystem of the open ocean.
So, we conclude that Urbilateria was part of the benthic epifauna - a bottom crawler.
Much of this distinctiveness can now be ascribed to the influence of Actinocyclus normanii in both the planktonic and benthic food webs.
New coastal ocean remote sensing techniques permit benthic habitats to be explored with higher resolution than ever before.
There is no escape for the benthic epifauna in space or time-they must be grazer resistant.