Пассивный залог

Passive Voice

Залог (Voice) – это форма глагола, которая показывает, является ли предмет или лицо исполнителем действия или же они испытывают на себе действие, выраженное глаголом. В английском языке существует два залога – активный и пассивный.


Пассивный (страдательный) залог (Passive Voice) используется, если нет необходимости называть исполнителя действия, который подразумевается из контекста или же ясен из той или иной ситуации.
E.g.:
The article was written on Monday.
The article has been sent this morning.


Форма пассивного залога образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в нужной форме и причастия прошедшего времени смыслового глагола:

The Present Simple

is (am, are) done

The Past Simple

was (were) done

The Future Simple

will (shall) be done

The Present Perfect

has (have) been done

The Past Perfect

had been done

The Future Perfect

will (shall) have been done

The Future in the Past

would be done

The Present Continuous

is (am, are) being done

The Past Continuous

was (were) being done

В пассивном залоге не употребляются времена Future Continuous, Future Continuous in the Past и все формы Perfect Continuous.
В вопросительных предложения первый вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.
E.g.:
Was the article written on Monday? When was it written?
Has the article been sent this morning?


В отрицательных предложениях отрицательная частица not ставится после первого вспомогательного глагола.
E.g.:
The article was not (wasn’t) written on Monday.
The article has not (hasn’t) been sent this morning.

Пассивный залог в английском языке употребляется, как правило, с переходными глаголами, т.е. с глаголами, которые имеют после себя дополнение:

  1. Ряд английских глаголов может иметь два дополнения – прямое и косвенное. Наиболее употребительны to tell, to give, to offer, to show, to pay, to promise, to send, to teach, to allow, to ask, to answer, to forgive, to invite, to advise. Такие глаголы образуют двойные конструкции в пассивном залоге.
    E.g.:
    A very good job was offered to me.
    I was offered a very good job.
    He was promised a raise in the salary.
    A raise in the salary was promised to him.

  2. Многие глаголы в английском языке употребляются с дополнением, имеющим предлог. В таких случаях предлог занимает место после глагола в пассивном залоге.
    E.g.:
    The doctor was sent for.
    This film is much spoken about.
    Why is he always laughed at?

  3. Глаголы to explain (smth to smb), to point out, to announce, to dictate, to describe, to mention, to repeat, to suggest, to propose могут образовывать только одну пассивную конструкцию.
    E.g.:
    The decision was announced to us.
    The difficulty was explained to her.
    A new plan was suggested to us.

Глаголы to read, to sell, to wash, to clean, to peel, to crease, to break, to deform, to wear, to burn употребляются в форме активного залога, хотя и имеют пассивное значение.
E.g.:
This dress washes and wears well and doesn’t crease.
Love stories sell well. Dry leaves burn well.

Такие глаголы, как: to have, to chance, to happen, to seem, to appear, to lack, to become, to fit, to suit, to resemble не употребляются в пассивном залоге, так как они обозначают не действие (или процесс), а состояние лица или предмета.
E.g.:
John resembles his father.
He has become a real professional.

С пассивными конструкциями часто употребляются предлоги of, from, with, by.
E.g.:
I was interrupted by a loud knock on the door.
My country house is made of wood. This pie is made from eggs, milk and flour.
He was shot with a gun.

 

Таблица всех времен в Passive Voice.

 

 

Present

Past

Future

Future-in-the Past

Simple (Indefinite)

Letters are written every day.

The letter was written yesterday.

The letter will be written tomorrow.

(He said that) the letter would be written the next day.

Continuous (Progressive)

The letter is being written now.

The letter was being written at 5 yesterday.

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Perfect

The letter has already been written.

The letter had been written by 5 o’clock yesterday.

The letter will have been written by 5 o’clock tomorrow.

(He said that) the letter would have been written by 5 the next day.

Perfect Continuous

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